Maps program management operations—
identifies inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes used to measure successful or achieved objectives; and
Serves as a blueprint for the implementation and evaluation of the program, strategy, service, or intervention studied.
Key components in logic models are inputs and activities used to operate a program. The logic model components are the ingredients in the program implemented to achieve the desired outcomes. The key components—essential activities and inputs—may include, for example, financial resources, professional development for trainers, curricular materials, or technology products. The inputs and activities describe the program in action and summarize the required operations to attain fidelity to the model. Regardless of the logic model is linear or nonlinear, at a minimum; it identifies the basic operational standards and structure in graphic form organized to demonstrate how the outputs lead to the program’s intermediate- and longer-term outcomes.
Outputs are products developed, deliverables completed, or milestones accomplished from the program activities and inputs. In other words, program outputs occur when the inputs and activities accomplish the intended objectives. Some examples of workforce program outputs include:
- Participant services (e.g., skill assessments, occupational training) delivered;
- Training/professional development activities or other supports for trainers (e.g., group training, on-site coaching, distance training, curriculum materials) completed;
- Instruction or skill development (e.g., technology, formative assessment(s), use of instructional time, participant groupings) completed;
- Participant, employer, and community engagement activities completed; or
- Coaching, advising, or referrals developed and delivered.
Intermediate outcomes are the expected program service delivery milestones or goals achieved that can lead to long-term outcomes. A logic model includes all intermediate outcomes through which the program is expected to affect participant long-term outcomes. Note that outputs and intermediate outcomes of workforce programs are often the same. Some examples include:
- Training program completions;
- Participant credentials;
- Participant job placements;
- The number of overlapping services reduced; and
- The number of complete records entered into a new management information system (MIS).
Long-term outcomes include the expected changes in behavior, attitudes, aptitude/skill, and knowledge for staff, participants, environments, or larger systems. Most importantly, workforce programs include changes in employment and earnings, employment retention, and the receipt of credentials as part of long-term outcomes. All outcome domains that the program is expected to affect should be included in the logic model.